China Human Rights Briefing
May 15-22, 2012
To download this week’s CHRB as a .pdf file, please click here
- June Fourth Prisoner Released Into Life of Restrictions: Li Yujun has been released after being detained for nearly 23 years in connection with the burning of a tanker as the Tiananmen Massacre unfolded in June of 1989, but he is now being required to submit to severe limitations on his freedom for the next eight years.
- Internet Café Manager Who Runs Democracy Site Tried in Closed Court for “Incitement”: Cao Haibo, who runs an Internet café in Yunnan Province while also organizing a website that promotes democracy, had his case for “inciting subversion of state power” tried in a closed court on May 22. After the proceedings, his wife was able to see him for five minutes—the first time they have been allowed to meet since Cao was detained last October.
- Shandong Police Block Lawyers From Defending Chen Kegui; Chen Guangfu Reports Torture: Shandong police have told lawyers Ding Xikui and Si Weijiang that they cannot defend Chen Kegui, the nephew of activist Chen Guangcheng who is being held on a charge of “intentional homicide.” The lawyers, who had been authorized by Chen Kegui’s wife to represent him, wrote a letter challenging the authorities’ arbitrary decision to block their legal efforts. In addition, Chen Guangfu—Chen Kegui’s father—recently reported on torture he was subjected to while in police custody in late April.
- June Fourth “Hooligan” Released After 23 Years, Faces Tight Restrictions for Next 8 Years
- Democracy Website Organizer Tried in Closed Court for “Inciting Subversion”
- Guangdong Rights Defense Representative Held in Black Jail Over 10 Weeks
- Hunan Woman Criminally Detained After Exposing Embezzlement by Local Officials
- Petitioner Granted Leave From RTL for Medical Reasons, Required to Return in Six Months
- Henan Activist Zhou Decai on Hunger Strike to Protest Detention, Impending Trial
- Chengdu Activists Detained for Protesting Judge Barring Representative From Court
- Henan Authorities Again Detain Mother, Young Baby for Petitioning in Beijing
- Shandong Petitioner Likely Sent Back to Psychiatric Hospital After Encounter With Premier Wen Jiabao
- Harassment of Human Rights Lawyers
Forced Eviction and Demolition/Land Expropriation
- Guangxi Authorities Let Villagers Who Lost Land Build New Homes, Then Destroy Them
- Fujian Officials Send Nearly 800 Personnel to Violently Quell Villager Angst Over Land Expropriation
Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment and Punishment
- Shandong Police Torture Chen Guangfu, Brother of Chen Guangcheng; Relatives Live in Fear
- Imprisoned Elderly Dissident-Historian Lü Jiaping in Very Poor Health, No Medical Parole in Sight
- Jiangsu Petitioner Brings Suit Over Myriad Violations in Black Jail Detention
Law & Policy Watch
- Chinese Authorities Push Debilitating “Legal Education” Campaign in Tibet
- CHRD Makes UN Submission in Behalf of Imprisoned Activist Xie Fulin
June Fourth “Hooligan” Released After 23 Years, Faces Tight Restrictions for Next 8 Years
Li Yujun (李玉君), a hawker who was detained for nearly 23 years in connection to the Tiananmen Massacre in 1989, was released in early May and returned home, though under orders from Beijing authorities to submit to “monitoring and control” for the next eight years. Under these conditions, Li, now 45 years old, will reportedly need to report to a police station once a month, and he will not be allowed to leave Beijing, give media interviews, or express political views online. Li’s alleged crime was setting a tanker on fire in Chaoyang District in an attempt to prevent soldiers from reaching the city center on the evening of June 3, 1989, when central authorities declared martial law.
In January of 1991, the Beijing Higher People’s Court convicted Li Yujun of “arson” and sentenced him to death with two-year reprieve, along with lifelong deprivation of his political rights. In 1993, Li’s death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment, and eventually that sentence was reduced to 20 years in 1996. Li received numerous sentence reductions for good behavior prior to his release in May from Beijing No. 2 Prison. Li has been among a small number of “hooligans” believed to still be serving sentences for convictions related to violent incidents that broke out as authorities cracked down on the pro-democracy movement in Beijing. (CHRD)[i]
Democracy Website Organizer Tried in Closed Court for “Inciting Subversion”
Cao Haibo (曹海波), a 27-year-old manager of an Internet café in Yunnan Province and organizer of a website that promotes democracy, had his case for “inciting subversion of state power” tried in a closed court on May 22. No verdict was announced at the Kunming City Intermediate People’s Court, and no details of the proceedings are known. That morning, Cao’s wife, Zhang Nian (张念), applied at the court to observe the hearing. But shortly thereafter, Cao’s attorney Ma Xiaopeng (马小鹏) received a phone call from a judge who told him that family members would not permitted to attend because “the case involves secrets,” but that Zhang could see her husband when the proceedings were over. After the hearing, which Ma attended, Zhang had just a five-minute visit with Cao—the first family visit granted since Cao was detained last October—and she indicated that he was in pretty good spirits though had lost some weight.
On October 21, 2011, national security officers from the Kunming Public Security Bureau took Cao Haibo into custody, and he was formally arrested on November 25. On the day he was seized, officers also searched Cao’s home and confiscated cell phones, desktop computers, a laptop, and USB drives, among other items. Originally from Jiangsu Province, Cao is being detained at the Xishan Detention Center in Kunming. (CHRD)[ii]
Guangdong Rights Defense Representative Held in Black Jail Over 10 Weeks
A Guangdong petitioner and rights defender, He Shaoyan (何韶炎), has remained held in a black jail after more than 70 days after being seized in Beijing as the “Two Meetings” convened. He had gone to the capital to petition and was intercepted and forcibly returned to Shaoguan City on March 6. His wife reportedly has contacted the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection in Beijing, which is charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres, about He’s ongoing detention. For years, He Shaoyan has been a representative of fellow villagers seeking justice after the local government, which they feel is corrupt, has not given compensation for land it requisitioned. In retaliation for He’s activities, the local government officials have given He several administrative detentions and also confiscated his identification card in 2010. (CHRD)[iii]
Hunan Woman Criminally Detained After Exposing Embezzlement by Local Officials
CHRD has learned that a woman from Hunan was criminally detained in early May after being brought back to her hometown from Beijing, where she had gone to seek justice over suspected embezzlement by local cadres. From Shaoyang City, Zhang Hualian (张花莲) was forcibly returned to the city on April 26 by Hunan police officers and then criminally detained on May 4 on a charge of “disrupting public order,” according to her family. Shaoyang officials have taken severe retaliation against Zhang for her petitioning, including by locking her up several times in black jails. Zhang is being detained at the Shaoyang City No. 1 Detention Center. (CHRD)[iv]
Petitioner Granted Leave From RTL for Medical Reasons, Required to Return in Six Months
In early May, Guangxi petitioner Quan Lianzhao (全连昭) was granted a six-month medical parole from a one-year Re-education through Labor (RTL) punishment, the remaining weeks of which she is expected to serve later this year. Quan, 61, suffers from various illnesses, including severe asthma and a heart ailment, and has been receiving medical care at Xinkang Prison Hospital for all but about 10 days since her punishment began last December. On May 16, the Guangxi Women’s RTL facility issued her parole documentation, which stipulates that Quan is required to be re-detained from November 6 to December 25, when she would be freed. Quan is currently receiving medical attention at a People’s Liberation Army hospital in Guangxi, where her family sent her upon her release.
From Nanning City, Quan Lianzhao was sent to RTL on December 25, 2011, two days after she was taken into custody while petitioning in Beijing on suspicion of “severely disrupting the order of Tiananmen Square and disrupting the social and public order of Zhongnanhai and other locales.” Her petitioning has focused on problems of land reclamation. In February and March of last year, Quan also served a 27-day criminal detention on a charge of “inciting subversion of state power” during the Jasmine Crackdown. (CHRD)[v]
Henan Activist Zhou Decai on Hunger Strike to Protest Detention, Impending Trial
Authorities in Henan Province hope that a lawyer for detained rights activist Zhou Decai (周德才) can convince Zhou to give up a hunger strike that he has conducted to protest what he feels is an unjust detention, according to a source familiar with the activist’s situation. As of May 16, Zhou had not eaten for three days while being held on a charge of “gathering a crowd to disrupt social order” in the Gushi County Detention Center. In a letter to a friend, Zhou wrote that he would refuse to appear in court when his case is prosecuted, which may happen soon; by May 9, the case had already been transferred to the Gushi County People’s Court. Zhou Decai has been detained since February 28, and he was formally arrested on March 10. An independent candidate in his local People’s Congress election and a grassroots organizer and activist for years, Zhou was taken into custody while preparing to attend a labor rights defense seminar in Beijing that focused on tobacco industry workers bought out by their companies. (CHRD)[vi]
Chengdu Activists Detained for Protesting Judge Barring Representative From Court
On May 14, several Chengdu activists were dragged away from a courtroom after vocally protesting a judge’s decision to bar a legal representative from court in a land reclamation case, with at least two individuals being issued detentions. At a hearing held by the Gaoxin District People’s Court, the judge refused to allow a plaintiff’s representative, Luo Fuyuan (罗福元), to enter the courtroom and present an argument, eliciting protests from the plaintiff and some observers. To quell the commotion, the judge summoned anti-riot police, who took away seven individuals. Among them, activist Li Tinghui (李廷惠) was issued a 15-day detention, and activist Wu Mingren (吴铭仁) has been detained, although for an unknown length of time. Wu’s wife was also placed in police custody temporarily, while the others dragged from the courtroom were released. The judge did not give a reason or produce formal documentation in not allowing Luo Fuyuan, who has distinguished himself in recent years by helping citizens defend their rights in court, to make a case on the plaintiff’s behalf. (CHRD)[vii]
Henan Authorities Again Detain Mother, Young Baby for Petitioning in Beijing
A petitioner from Henan Province, Nie Li’na (聂丽娜), has been detained with her eight-month old daughter after they were seized in Beijing and sent back to Xiangcheng County—the second time this year the mother and child have been detained after being in the capital. Beijing police from the Fengtai District branch of the local Public Security Bureau tracked the mother and child down at a residence on May 13. They then turned the pair over to interceptors from Henan, where Nie and her child are being held in the Xiangcheng County Detention House. A county government personnel told Nie’s parents that their daughter had gone back to Beijing, where she supposedly had passed along negative information about the Xiangcheng government to foreign media. Nie is being detained due to this alleged behavior, possibly on suspicion of being a “traitor” for communicating with “hostile foreign elements,” though authorities have refused to produce a notice of detention or indicate formal charges against her. Police have also blocked Nie’s elder sister from seeing her, and have not stated how long Nie and the infant may be held.
Nie was also taken into custody with her then six-month old daughter in late February and held for weeks after going to Beijing to petition over the same grievance—an unresolved land issue that emerged after she got divorced over a decade ago. Xiangcheng authorities have retaliated against Nie by detaining her several times in black jails, including while she was pregnant, which reportedly led to her daughter’s premature birth last year. (CHRD)[viii]
Shandong Petitioner Likely Sent Back to Psychiatric Hospital After Encounter With Premier Wen Jiabao
A Shandong petitioner, Lin Xiuli (林秀丽), is believed to have been sent to a psychiatric hospital after reportedly managing to hand Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao (温家宝) grievance materials in Beijing. On May 9, Lin broke through police security and approached the premier at the Beijing South Railway Station. Local police immediately took her into custody and handed her over to interceptors, who took Lin back to Qingdao and initially held her in a black jail. Authorities told Lin on May 10 that they wanted to assess her mental health, a process that would essentially be a way to detain her in a psychiatric institution—where she was held for most of last year—and subject her to abuses. She denied their request, however, and has indicated to CHRD that she does not suffer from any mental illness. On May 11, Lin’s sister was located by Qingdao authorities who tried to force her to sign a form that would re-admit Lin to a psychiatric hospital, but the sister refused. Later that day, Lin fell out of contact, and her sister was unable to find out from government officials where Lin is, but she suspects that Lin had been taken back to the Maidao Psychiatric Hospital, where was held for nearly 300 days last year and forced to take medications and given injections.
Lin Xiuli, who was crippled after being thrown from a building, has been petitioning for nearly a decade after being dissatisfied with a court decision. In retaliation, she has been detained about two dozen times and for about 550 days since February of 2007, including in black jails and the psychiatric institution. (CHRD)[ix]
Harassment of Human Rights Lawyers
Authorities Interfere With Family-Authorized Lawyers of Chen Kegui, Lawyers Issue Challenge to Police
Shandong authorities recently informed two lawyers who were set to take up Chen Kegui’s (陈克贵) case that they will not be able to represent him, leading the lawyers to pen a letter addressing the illegality of this decision. Ding Xikui (丁锡奎) and Si Weijiang (斯伟江), who had been authorized by Chen’s wife to defend him, were told by Yinan County police officers on May 18 that two lawyers from the local government-run legal aid center have been appointed to Chen’s case, and that Ding and Si cannot defend Chen Kegui because Chinese law only permits two attorneys per criminal suspect. On May 21, Ding wrote a letter on behalf of both himself and Si addressed to the chief of the Yinan County Public Security Bureau, challenging the legality of authorities’ decision to obstruct the two lawyers from meeting with Chen and representing him. CHRD published and distributed a summary of the letter, with the original Chinese text, on May 22.
According to the letter, Chen Kegui’s wife, Liu Fang (刘芳), retained Ding and Si on May 11 to represent her husband after two other lawyers she had hired, Liu Weiguo (刘伟国) and Chen Wuquan (陈武权), were intimidated and harassed by authorities; Guangdong judicial officials went so far as to suspend Chen Wuquan’s license to practice law. Yinan police informed Ding that Liu Fang must also appear in person with the lawyers at the police station to file the authorization paperwork and request a meeting with Chen Kegui, or else the authorization would not be recognized. Ding told the police that their demand “had no legal basis,” and Chen Kegui still has not been permitted to meet with a lawyer of his own choosing. (CHRD)[x]
Forced Eviction and Demolition/Land Expropriation
Guangxi Authorities Let Villagers Who Lost Land Build New Homes, Then Destroy Them
For a recent forced demolition project, local officials in Guangxi Province deployed personnel who used tear gas and other violent means to disperse local villagers and destroy homes the residents had built by themselves. The Yongning District government in Nanning City sent out a medley of government officials on May 4 to forcibly demolish 36 homes that villagers had been allowed to construct on their own, with the government-organized personnel beating those who resisted and throwing canisters of tear gas at the villagers (including elderly and children) to fend them off. The aggressive behavior resulted in injuries to several villagers, with one, Liang Zhansheng (梁展生), severely burned when a bottle of gasoline exploded after being struck by a canister. The villagers, all of whom have relied on farming to eke out a living, were reportedly forced to sell their land last year at a cheap price when the local government moved forward with a reclamation project. The government, as promised, then allowed villagers who had lost land to build new homes at a different location, only to demolish them under the pretext that they had been “illegally built.” (CHRD)[xi]
Fujian Officials Send Nearly 800 Personnel to Violently Quell Villager Angst Over Land Expropriation
Local officials in Fujian Province recently deployed nearly 800 people to quell villager unrest, leading to a violent clash that left one person dead and more than 40 residents seriously injured. On May 11, the vice-director of the Xianyou County Standing Committee ordered the large-scale deployment to Dongjinggong Village, which was executed by lower-level officials and included cadres and thugs from a half-dozen towns. Gaiwei Town leaders were instrumental in leading the aggressive behavior, ordering individuals armed with shields, electric prods, sticks, and other items to beat villagers, including elderly and passersby. The large group also vandalized homes, destroying doors and furniture. Ruan Jianhang (阮建航), who was riding a motorcycle at the end of a work shift, was surrounded and beaten by a number of the government’s attackers while simply passing through the village. He died at the scene after suffering blows to his head and losing a great deal of blood.
The villagers were being attacked for objecting to a land expropriation project launched last fall in Gaiwei Town for which officials had sold off land reportedly belonging to villagers for huge profits. When the projects were underway last fall, police officers also used aggressive tactics and detained villagers from Dongjinggong. (CHRD)[xii]
Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment and Punishment
Shandong Police Torture Chen Guangfu, Brother of Chen Guangcheng; Relatives Live in Fear
CHRD has learned that Chen Guangfu (陈光福), the elder brother of activist Chen Guangcheng (陈光诚), was reportedly tortured while in the hands of Yinan County police in Shandong Province in late April. He is still suffering serious effects from the abuse, according to a reliable source within China. The abuses against Chen Guangfu represent the most physically violent treatment to surface so far among the spate of retaliatory acts towards those with links to Chen Guangcheng after his flight from house arrest. In addition to the reported torture, it is believed that Linyi authorities are maintaining tight controls over many of Chen Guangcheng’s other relatives, with their movements strictly limited as they live in a state of extreme fear.
In the early morning of April 27, Zhang Jian (张健), a head of Shuanghou Township (that has jurisdiction over Dongshigu Village), and accompanying thugs climbed over the wall to Chen Guangfu’s home and banged on the front door, eventually seizing Chen and blindfolding him before dragging him away. Chen was taken to the Yinan County Public Security Bureau, where he was questioned mainly about how Chen Guangcheng escaped—and subjected to several hours of torture. Authorities handcuffed Chen Guangfu and shackled his legs, slapped him, and then whipped his hands with a leather belt, struck him in the ribs, and stomped hard on his toes. At this time—nearly three weeks later—Chen still reportedly has not regained any feeling in the area stretching from his left thumb through his wrist, and his right foot also remains numb.
After seizing Chen Guangfu on April 27, the group later re-entered the home and severely beat his wife, Ren Zongju (任宗举), and his son, Chen Kegui (陈克贵). The intruders also smashed a bowl of medicine the family was using to treat Chen Kegui’s five-year-old son, who was suffering from a high fever at the time. Chen Kegui tried to defend the family by wielding knives to fend off the aggressive officials and thugs. He was later detained and, on May 9, formally arrested on a charge of “intentional homicide”—a charge made although Chen was acting in self-defense and defending his family, with no one dying from any injuries suffered in the altercation.
Other relatives of Chen Guangcheng—his cousin Chen Guangcun (陈光存), and Chen Guangcun’s son, Chen Hua (陈华)—were also taken into custody in late April, as was a fellow villager, Liu Yuancheng (刘元成). These individuals were all reportedly held for two days before being released. On the evening of May 16, CHRD also spoke with Chen Guangcheng’s cousin, Chen Guangcun (陈光存), who resides in Linyi City but not near Dongshigu Village, and he said he was not fully aware of the situation in Dongshigu, since he has been under strict controls and unable to contact his relatives. Chen Guangcun said he too was taken away on April 27 and that Linyi authorities released him two days later.
Read more information on CHRD’s website about ongoing acts of retaliation against Chen Guangcheng’s relatives and supporters, as well as harassment of Chinese citizens who have attempted to assist the family since the blind activist’s escape from house arrest. (CHRD)[xiii]
Imprisoned Elderly Dissident-Historian Lü Jiaping in Very Poor Health, No Medical Parole in Sight
Lü Jiaping (吕加平), a Hunan dissident and military scholar serving a 10-year sentence for “inciting subversion of state power,” reportedly suffered a heart attack in prison late last year and is in very poor health overall, CHRD has learned. Now 71 years old, Lü had a heart attack while incarcerated in Shaoyang City Prison, and he was rushed to a hospital but only after guards handcuffed and shackled him. Lü is suffering from several illnesses, including coronary heart disease, necrosis of caput femoris, diabetes, gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), and diseases in his lungs (bronchiectasis) and spine (spinal bone hyperplasia). Lü has also spat up blood while in prison, and has had great difficulty sleeping, standing, and walking, reportedly falling several times. His family members have approached authorities in both Beijing and Shaoyang to request Lü’s release on medical parole, but they have not yet received a response.
On May 13, 2011, the Beijing Intermediate People’s Court convicted Lü of “inciting subversion” and sentenced him to ten years in prison. The sentence is believed to come in retaliation for works by Lü about scandals involving Chinese officials, including claims that former Chinese President Jiang Zemin (江泽民) was a “traitor” and had questionable background and political credentials. Lü and his wife, who was later released, were seized by police in Hunan in September 2010 and taken to Beijing. His family was never informed of Lü’s detention or his trial, however, and thus was unable to attend the proceedings or hire a lawyer to represent him. (CHRD)[xiv]
Jiangsu Petitioner Brings Suit Over Myriad Violations in Black Jail Detention
A Jiangsu woman has sent a local court an application for an administrative lawsuit against authorities for blatant rights violations she suffered when detained in black jails in 2010. Wang Jianfen (王建芬), a petitioner from Wuxi, mailed materials on May 14 to the Wuxi City Intermediate People’s Court, accusing the Yishan District People’s Government and the Yishan branch of the Wuyi City Public Security Bureau of violating her personal freedoms in December of 2010, when she was held for 19 days in two separate black jails. While detained, Wang was subjected to myriad abuses and suffered from health problems, but did not receive medical attention. Wang was forcibly searched and had to urinate and defecate in the room where she was being held. Authorities constantly interrogated Wang, leaving her in a further weakened state, and a police officer pushed Wang to admit to “illegal petitioning” before she could be fed. The head of the local letters and visits office reportedly ordered Wang’s blankets taken away, causing her to be very cold at night in the middle of winter. Guards slept in the same room as Wang, with one male guard making veiled sexual threats, contributing to her sleeplessness. Wang was so fatigued during her detention that she could only lie in bed. Wang began petitioning after her home was forcibly destroyed even though it reportedly fell outside boundaries set for demolition. (CHRD)[xv]
Law & Policy Watch
Chinese Authorities Push Debilitating “Legal Education” Campaign in Tibet
Chinese authorities in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) have announced that they would push ahead further “patriotic re-education” and “legal education” campaigns that target Tibetan monastic institutions in the name of maintaining stability, enhancing unity, and promoting harmony in Tibet. On May 11 in Lhasa, the TAR government held the “Mobilization Meeting on In-depth Legal Education Campaign in Tibetan Buddhist Temples,” which marked the implementation of the Chinese Communist Party’s policy on religion and the rules and regulations passed by the State Religious Affairs Bureau in all monasteries and nunneries in Tibet. In the second half of 2011, the Tibetan authorities had already publicized the selection of so-called “model monasteries” and “highly advanced and patriotic” monks and nuns while implementing programs to further strengthen control over monasteries and nunneries. According to the TAR governor, such moves can “provide guidance to Tibetan Buddhism in adapting itself to a socialist society” and be “an effective way to resist the infiltration and sabotage from the Dalai clique.”
According to the Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD), the first “patriotic re-education” campaign in Tibet was launched in 1996, mainly to exert control over what the Chinese authorities term “the hotbed of dissent activities,” referring to monastic institutions. Refusal to comply with the requirements of re-education sessions has resulted in arrests and expulsion of monks and nuns. After the demonstrations in Tibet in 2008, control and surveillance of Tibetan monastic institutions have severely increased, resulting in tight restrictions on religious activities and the intrusion of many government-ordered programs. For instance, under provisions of the “Nine Must Haves” program, Tibetan Buddhist monasteries are required to hang portraits of four Chinese Communist leaders and the Chinese national flag, with the government supplying electricity and water to the monasteries as a welfare measure. Restrictions on the movement of monks and nuns have ultimately forced many monks to flee their respective monasteries, leading to their shutdown. Regulations have also aimed to create distance between Tibetan monastic institutions and foreign influence and “separatist activities,” effectively barring contact between monasteries and nunneries and their sister affiliations abroad. (Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy)[xvi]
CHRD Makes UN Submission in Behalf of Imprisoned Activist Xie Fulin
CHRD recently submitted allegations of human rights violations to Special Procedures of the United Nations Human Rights Council on behalf of human rights activist Xie Fulin (谢福林), who is serving a six-year prison sentence after being convicted of “larceny”—for allegedly stealing electricity—in March 2010. The submission about Xie, which was sent on April 13, alleged arbitrary detention, violation of freedom of expression, and torture and other cruel and unusual punishment.
On July 22, 2009, officers from the Furong Public Security Bureau in Changsha City, Hunan Province took Xie away for “investigation.” He was then criminally detained on suspicion of “stealing electricity” and formally arrested in August. On March 26, 2010, the Furong District People’s Court convicted Xie of “larceny” and sentenced him to six years’ imprisonment. As evidence of alleged crimes, the court verdict stated that Xie had used external electrical sources to provide power to his home and a restaurant that he had opened. In prison, Xie has suffered from serious illnesses that have gone poorly treated, leaving his health in such urgent peril that both Xie and his wife have expressed concern that he may not live through his sentence. Authorities have refused to release Xie on medical parole. Xie has also faced physical violence, intimidation, and threats while in prison. Xie has promoted democracy rights by participating in activities of the banned China Pan-Blue Alliance, organizing and advocating for petitioners to defend their rights, and signing “Charter 08.” (CHRD)[xvii]
Editors: Victor Clemens and Wang Songlian
[ii] “Cai Haibo, Accused of ‘Subversion,’ Has ‘Secret Case’ Tried in Closed Hearing” (曹海波“涉嫌颠覆国家政权”案因“案件涉密”未公开审理), May 22, 2012, CHRD; “Cao Haibo Detained for Four Months, Wife and Child in Urgent Need of Assistance” (曹海波被羁押4个月，妻儿急需社会救助), February 29, 2012, CHRD; Jiangsu Netizen Cao Haibo Summoned and Home Searched for Suspicion of “Inciting Subversion of State Power” (江苏网友曹海波在昆明被以涉嫌“煽动颠覆国家政权” 带走), October 21, 2011
[iii] “He Shaoyan, Who Reported Corruption in Guangdong, Held in Black Jail Over 70 Days, Wife Writes to Central Commission for Discipline Inspection” (广东举报人何韶炎被关黑监狱70余天，妻子致信中纪委), May 18, 2012, CHRD; “Guangdong Rights Defense Representative He Shaoyan Held in Black Jail For Petitioning Around Two Meetings” (广东维权代表何韶炎两会上访被关黑监狱仍未获释), April 5, 2012, CHRD
[v] “Case of Asthma in Guangxi RTL: Quan Lianzhao Medically Paroled” (广西哮喘劳教案：全连昭已获所外就医), May 20, 2012, CHRD; “Jasmine Crackdown Detainee Sent to RTL; Family Member Intercepted in Beijing, Sent Back Home” (茉莉花革命期间被刑拘者遭劳教 家人北京上访被截回), March 19, 2012, CHRD; “Guangxi Petitioner Quan Lianzhao Sent to RTL, Family Member Goes to Petition in Beijing” (广西全连昭被劳教 家人在北京上访), March 13, 2012, CHRD; “Individuals Affected by the Crackdown Following Call for Jasmine Revolution,” May 10, 2012 (updated), CHRD
[vi] “Gushi County, Henan Activist Zhou Decai on Hunger Strike in Detention” (河南固始维权人士周德才在看守所中绝食), May 17, 2012, CHRD; “Henan Rights Defender Zhou Decai’s Case Sent to Court”(河南维权人士周德才案已经移交法院), May 10, 2012, CHRD; “Henan Rights Defense Activist Zhou Decai Has Visit With Lawyers” (河南维权人士周德才会见律师), March 29, 2012, CHRD; “Henan Rights Defender Zhou Decai Formally Arrested” (河南维权人士周德才被批准逮捕), March 10, 2012, CHRD; “Henan Rights Defender Zhou Decai Criminally Detained for ‘Gathering Crowd to Disrupt Social Order’” (河南维权人士周德才被以涉嫌“聚众扰乱社会秩序罪”刑拘), March 1, 2012, CHRD; “Rights Activist From Gushi County, Henan, Zhou Decai, Taken Away by Police, Has Home Searched”(河南固始县维权人士周德才被警方抓走并抄家), February 28, 2012, CHRD
[vii] “Several Protesters of Judge in Chengdu Detained Without Fanfare” (成都法官枉法无人管群众抗议被拘留), May 14, 2012, CHRD; “Gaoxin District Judge in Chengdu Employs Anti-Riot Forces to Control Hearing Observers” (成都高新区法院用防暴队将旁听人带走控制), May 14, 2012, CHRD
[viii] “Henan Petitioner Nie Lina, Young Daughter Again Held in Detention House” (河南访民聂丽娜和幼女再次被关入拘留所), May 15, 2012, CHRD; “Henan Petitioner Nie Lina, 6-Month-Old Daughter Held Over 20 Days, No Date Set for Release” (河南访民聂丽娜和6个月女儿被关押20余天获释无期), March 18, 2012, CHRD
[ix] “Lin Xiuli Disappears After Approaching Premier Wen Jiabao Over Grievance, Suspected to Be Detained in Psychiatric Hospital” (偶遇总理诉冤的林秀丽失踪，疑被关精神病院), May 12, 2012, CHRD; “Shandong Petitioner Lin Xiuli Presents Grievance to Premier Wen Jiabao, Taken Overnight Back Home to Be Detained in a Psychiatric Hospital” (山东访民林秀丽偶见总理递诉状，连夜被押回当地欲关精神病院), May 11, 2012, CHRD; “Shandong Petitioner Li Xiuli Detained in Qingdao by Provincial Authorities After Meeting Wen Jiabao” (山东访民林秀丽见温总理后遭山东官员扣留在青岛), May 10, 2012, CHRD; “Shandong Petitioners Lin Xiuli, Li Ziyan Seized When Passing by Tiananmen Square” (山东访民林秀丽、季子燕路经天安门时被扣押), March 7, 2012, CHRD
[x] “China Human Rights Briefing: Special Edition – Lawyers Pose Challenge After Police Prevent Meeting With Chen Kegui,” May 22, 2012, CHRD; “Chen Guangcheng: A Special Bulletin – Updates on Situation of Chen Guangcheng & His Family Members, Relatives & Supporters Since Chen’s Flight for Freedom,” May 23, 2012 (updated), CHRD
[xiii] “Chen Guangfu, Chen Guangcheng’s Elder Brother, Tortured” (陈光诚的哥哥陈光福遭酷刑), May 16, 2012, CHRD; “Chen Guangcheng: A Special Bulletin – Updates on Situation of Chen Guangcheng & His Family Members, Relatives & Supporters Since Chen’s Flight for Freedom,” May 16, 2012 (updated), CHRD
[xiv] “WW II Historian Lü Jiaping’s Health Severely Deteriorating in Prison” (特别关注：二战史专家吕加平先生狱中身体恶化), May 18, 2011, CHRD; “Details of ‘Incitement’ Case of Shaoyang, Hunan Scholar Lü Jiaping” (湖南邵阳学者吕加平“煽动颠覆国家政权罪”案详情), February 17, 2012, CHRD
[xvi] “China Re-launches ‘Legal Education’ Campaign in TAR,” May 17, 2012, Tibet Centre for Human Rights and Democracy